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Further reading:

Genaral information on “Spin modification”

Proton spin can be influenced by magnetic fields or radio frequency pulses. In a homogeneous, static magnetic field, there is a precession of the proton spin about the magnetic field direction. As a result of a relaxation process, the proton spin takes on the direction of the external field after a certain time, defined by the longitudinal relaxation time T1.
In a microwave field (radio frequency pulses) the direction of the spin can be changed at short intervals.
For examinations of living tissue (determination of T1 and T2) deflections of 90° or 180° from the stationary field direction have proved to be effective. For such examinations, the repetition frequency, i.e. the time between two radio frequency pulses, is also relevant.

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Books: MRI , NMR, Modification of a spin

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